The Juvenile Tradition and the Fiction Factory, Part I

Wide-Awake Young Writers


  • Laurie Langbauer



This first in a series of two essays considers the relation of the juvenile tradition to cheap, mass-produced dime fiction in America from the 1860s on. Part One provides a survey of fiction-factory writing by now-unrecognized young writers in the latter half of the nineteenth century; my interest lies in recovering what juvenile writers who worked in that industry thought about it. This essay focuses on how they embraced new opportunities for authorship that mass-market publication provided. Such an assembly-line mode of literary production carried a new understanding of its authors as workers in the fiction factory. Rather than regret the loss of inspiration or genius in their writing identity, however, young dime writers hailed their role as “hack” writers by asserting youth’s modern character as “wide-awake”—aware, practical, savvy, and successful.



Alcott, Louisa May. Eight Cousins, or, The Aunt-Hill. Roberts Bros., 1875. Google Books.

Anderson, Ryan. Frank Merriwell and the Fiction of All-American Boyhood: The Progressive Era Creation of the Schoolboy Sports Story. U of Arkansas P, 2015.

Anderson, Vicki. The Dime Novel in Children’s Literature. McFarland, 2005.

Beadle’s Dime Letter Writer. New York: Beadle and Company Publishers, 1863. Nickels and Dimes, Northern Illinois U,

Bellows, Robert Peabody. “The Degeneration of the Dime Novel.” The Writer: A Monthly Magazine for Literary Workers, vol. 12, no. 7, July 1899, pp. 97–99. Google Books.

Bishop, W[illiam]. H[enry]. 1879. “Story-Paper Literature.” Atlantic Monthly, vol. 44, no. 263, September 1879, pp. 383–93. Google Books.

Blackbeard, Bill. “Pulps and Dime Novels.” Handbook of American Popular Culture, edited by M. Thomas Inge, Greenwood Press, 1988, pp. 217–50.

Bleiler, E[verett] F. “Luis Philip Senarens.” Science Fiction Writers: Critical Studies of the Major Authors from the Early Nineteenth Century to the Present Day, edited by Richard Bleiler, Charles Scribner’s Sons/Macmillan Library Reference, 1999, pp. 661–66.

Bleiler, Everett F., John Eggeling,and John Clute. “Senarens, Luis Philip.”The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited by Clute and David Langford. SFE/Ansible Editions, 16 August

Bold, Christine. “Popular Forms I.” The Columbia History of the American Novel, edited by Emory Elliott, Columbia UP, 1991, pp. 285–308.

Bold, Christine. Review of Popular History and the Literary Marketplace 1840–1920, by Gregory M. Pfitzer. English Studies in Canada, vol. 35, no. 3, June–September 2009, pp. 203–07. Project MUSE,

Bold, Christine. “Voice of the Fiction Factory in Dime and Pulp Westerns.” Journal of American Studies, vol. 17, no. 1, April 1983, pp. 29–46. JSTOR, doi:10.1017/S0021875800014511.

“Books.” New Yorker, vol. 1, no. 2, 28 February 1925, p. 26. Google Books.

“Books and Authors.” America: A Catholic Review of the Week, vol. 33, no. 4, 9 May 1925, pp. 92–94. Google Books.

“Books on Our Table.” New York Evening Post, 21 March, 1925, p. 46. New York State Historic Newspapers,

“Books We Have Met.” The Step Ladder, vol. 2, no.1, November 1920, pp. 7–9. Google Books.

Boone, Ilsley, editor. College Hill Verse: Being Selections from Student Publications of Brown University, 1894–1904. Preston & Rounds, 1904. Google Books.

Bremner, Robert.Introduction. Traps for the Young,by Anthony Comstock, edited by Bremner, The John Harvard Library, vol. 42, Harvard UP, 1967, pp. vii–xxxi. doi:10.4159/harvard.9780674497689.

Brodhead, Richard H. “The American Literary Field, 1860–1890.” The Cambridge History of American Literature, edited by Sacvan Bercovitch, vol. 3 Prose Writing, 1860–1920, Cambridge UP, 2005, pp. 11–62. Cambridge Core, doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521301077.

Brodhead, Richard H. Cultures of Letters: Scenes of Reading and Writing in Nineteenth-Century America. U of Chicago P, 1993.

Brown, Bob. “Appendix by Bob Brown.” Edited by Craig J. Saper. Readies for Bob Brown’s Machine: A Critical Facsimile Edition, edited by Saper and Eric B. White, Edinburgh UP, 2020. Edinburgh Scholarship Online, doi:10.3366/edinburgh/9781474455053.003.0006.

Brown, Bob. “Swell Days for Literary Guys.” American Mercury,vol. 108, December 1932, pp. 480–85.

Burgess, Gelett. “The Confessions of a Dime-Novelist: An Interview.” The Bookman, vol. 15, no. 6, August 1902, pp. 528–33. American Periodicals Series, ProQuest,

Burgess, Gelett. “Half-Dime Novel/On Certain Unreviewed Literature.” The Lark, vol. 1, no. 5, September 1896, n. p. Google Books.

Carr, Felicia. “May Agnes Fleming.” American Women’s Dime Novel Project: Dime Novels for Women, 1870–1920. 2013. Center for History and New Media, George Mason University,

Chapman, Arthur. “Old Boys Still Yearn for the Dime Novel.” New York Tribune, 14 May 1922, p. D5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Chlebek, Diana. “Wide Awake.” Children’s Periodical of the United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly, Greenwood Press, 1984, pp. 454–60. Internet Archive.

Cohen, Daniel A. Introduction. “Hero Strong” and Other Stories: Tales of Girlhood Ambition, Female Masculinity, and Women’s Worldly Achievement in Ante-bellum America, edited by Cohen, U of Tennessee P, 2014, pp. 1–61.

Cohen, Daniel A. “Making Hero Strong: Teenage Ambition, Story-Paper Fiction, and the Generational Recasting of American Women’s Authorship.” Journal of the Early Republic, vol. 30, no.1, Spring 2010, pp. 85–136. JSTOR, doi:10.1353/jer.0.0136.

Cohen, Daniel A. Preface. “Hero Strong” and Other Stories: Tales of Girlhood Ambition, Female Masculinity, and Women’s Worldly Achievement in Ante-bellum America, edited by Cohen, U of Tennessee P, 2014, pp. Vii–viii.

Cohen, Daniel A. “Winnie Woodfern Comes Out in Print: Story-Paper Authorship and Protolesbian Self-Representation in Antebellum America.” Journal of the History of Sexuality, vol. 21, no. 3, September 2012, pp. 367–408, JSTOR, doi:10.7560/JHS21301.

Cohen, Lara Langer. “‘The Emancipation of Boyhood’: Postbellum Teenage Subculture and the Amateur Press.” Commonplace, vol. 14, no.1, Fall, 2013,

Cohen, Lara Langer. The Fabrication of American Literature: Fraudulence and Antebellum Print Culture. U of Pennsylvania P, 2011. De Gruyter, doi:10.9783/9780812205190.

Cohen, Lara Langer,and Meredith McGill. “The Perils of Authorship: Literary Property and Nineteenth-Century American Fiction.” Oxford History of the Novel in English: the American Novels to 1870, edited by Gerald Kennedy and Leland Person, vol 5, Oxford UP, 2014, pp. 195–212. 12 vols.

Collins, Paul. Imaginary Subjects: Fiction-Writing Instruction in America, 1826–1897. 2016. City U of New York, PhD Dissertation. CUNY Academic Works,

Comstock, Anthony. Traps for the Young. Edited by Robert Bremner, vol. 42 The John Harvard Library, Harvard UP, 1967. doi:10.4159/harvard.9780674497689.

[Cook, William Wallace].The Fiction Factory, by John Milton Edwards; being the Experience of a Writer who, for Twenty-two Years, has kept a Story-mill Grinding Successfully.... Ridgewood, NJ: The Editor Company, 1912. Google Books.

Cox, J. Randolph. The Dime Novel Companion: A Source Book. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Cummins, Donna. “Who Is Laura Jean Libbey?” Dime Novel Round Up, vol. 74, no. 6/696, December 2005, pp. 241–61.

Currier, Isabel. “He Specializes In Dime Novels.” The Baltimore Sun, 11 February 1933, p. 8. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Curti, Merle. “Dime Novels and the American Tradition.” Yale Review, vol. 26, Summer 1937, pp. 761–78.

“Death of Mrs. Victor: An Authoress Well Known a Quarter of a Century Ago.” New York Times, 27 June 1885, p.8. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Denham, Robert D. Northrop Frye and Critical Method. Pennsylvania State UP, 1978. The Educated Imagination: A Website Dedicated to Northrop Frye,

Denning, Michael. Mechanic Accents: Dime Novels and Working-Class Culture in America, Revised Edition. 1987. Revised edition, Verso, 1998.

Durfee, Susan T. Missions Made Fascinating for Wide-awake Girls. Religious Publishing, 1913. Google Books.

Duryea, John B. A Practical Treatise on the Business of Banking and Commercial Credits. Published by the author, 1892. Google Books.

[Duyckinck, Evert]. “Mr. Cooper.” Arcturus: A Journal of Books and Opinions, vol. 1, no. 2, January 1841, pp. 90–92. Google Books.

Edgar, George. “The Modern Boy’s Book.” The Writer: A Monthly Magazine for Literary Workers, vol. 26, no. 4, April 1914, pp. 59–61. Google Books.

Erickson, Paul J. “Judging Books by Their Covers: Format, the Implied Reader, and the ‘Degeneration’ of the Dime Novel.” American Transcendental Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 3, September 1998, pp. 247–63. ProQuest,

Evans, Taylor. “The Race of Machines: Blackness and Prosthetics in Early American Science Fiction.” American Literature, vol. 90, no. 3, September 2018, pp. 553–84. Duke UP online, doi:10.1215/00029831-6994805.

[Everett, Edward].“Oration Delivered by Edward Everett before the Harvard Chapter, August 26, 1824.” Phi Beta Kappa Key, vol. 5, no. 8, May 1924, pp. 487–502. JSTOR,

[Everett, William]. “Beadle’s Dime Books.” North American Review, vol. 99, no. 204, July 1864, pp. 303–09. American Periodicals Series, ProQuest,

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton UP, 1957, rpt. 1971. Internet Archive, Books to Borrow,

Gardner, Ralph D. “Street & Smith.” Publishers for Mass Entertainment in Nineteenth Century America, edited by Madeline B. Stern, G. K. Hall, 1980, pp. 277–94.

“Green & Co—the New Dime Novel.” Republican Banner, vol.50, no. 285, 1 December 1860, p. 3. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Grinspan, Jon. “‘Young Men for War’: The Wide Awakes and Lincoln’s 1860 Presidential Campaign.” The Journal of American History, vol. 96, no. 2, Sept.2009, pp. 357–78. JSTOR,

Hall, Will T. “Our Centerfold This Issue Original Holograph Minutes of the First Annual Napa Convention 1876.” The Fossil, vol. 102, no 4, whole no.329, July 2006, pp. 4–5.

Hamilton-Honey, Emily. “Guardians of Morality: Librarians and American Girls’ Series Fiction, 1890–1950.” Library Trends, vol. 60, no. 4, April 2012, pp. 765–85. ProQuest, doi:10.1353/lib.2012.0012.

Hamilton-Honey, Emily. Turning the Pages on American Girlhood: The Evolution of Girls’ Series Fiction, 1865–1930.McFarland, 2013.

“Happy Days Catalog Advertisement.” Happy Days: A Paper for Young and Old, vol. 38, no. 974, 14 June 1913, p. 8. Google Books.

Harris, Neil. “The Operational Aesthetic.” Popular Fiction: Technology, Ideology, Production, Reading, edited by Tony Bennett. Routledge, 1990, pp. 401–12.

Harrison, Thos. G. The Career and Reminiscences of an Amateur Journalist and a History of Amateur Journalism. Indianapolis: Thos. G. Harrison, Publisher and Printer, 1883. Google Books.

Harvey, Charles. “The Dime Novel in American Life.” Atlantic Monthly, vol. 100, July 1907, pp. 37–45. Internet Archive,

Hazle, Harry, Jr. [E.R. Hoadley]. “My First Story.” The Boys of New York: A Paper for Young Americans, vol. 1, no. 15, 29 November 1875. Digital Library@Villanova University.

Heilbronner, Oded. “From a Culture for Youth to a Culture of Youth: Recent Trends in the Historiography of Western Youth Cultures.” Contemporary European History, vol. 17, no. 4, 2008, pp. 575–91. Cambridge Core, doi:10.1017/S0960777308004724.

Hendrick, Harry. Images of Youth: Age, Class, and the Male Youth Problem, 1880–1920. Oxford UP, 1990. Oxford Scholarship Online, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198217824.001.0001.

Hentea, Marius. “Late Modernist Debuts: Publishing and Professionalizing Young Novelists in 1920s Britain.” Book History, vol. 14, 2011, pp. 167–86. JSTOR, doi:10.1353/bh.2011.0000.

Hoadley, Jr., E. R. The Double Dream: Or, A Curious Coincidence. Norfolk, VA: Wm. N. Grubb, Printer and Publisher, 1876. American Antiquarian Society,

Holbrook, Stewart. “From the Bowery to the Black Hills, the Guns Barked, the Blood Ran.” New York Herald Tribune, 28 May 1950, p. E5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism. Harvard UP, 1986. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Howells, William Dean. “An Editor’s Relations with Young Authors: A Veteran’s Good Advice to the Beginner in Literature.” Youth’s Companion,vol. 69, 5 September 1895, p. 418. Google Books.

Jenks, George C. “Dime Novel Makers.” Bookman: an Illustrated Magazine of Literature and Life, vol. 20, no. 2, October 1904, pp. 108–14. Google Books.

Johannsen, Albert. House of Beadle and Adams and Its Dime and Nickel Novels: The Story of a Vanished Literature, U of Oklahoma P, 1950. 3 vols.

Jones, Archer. 1938. “The Pulps—A Mirror to Yearning.” North American Review, vol. 246, no.1, Autumn 1938, pp. 35–47. American Periodicals Series, ProQuest,

[Jones, W. A.] “Edward Everett.” Arcturus: A Journal of Books and Opinions, vol. 2, p. 10, September 1841, pp. 221–25. Google Books.

[Jones, W. A.]. “Horne’s New Spirit of the Age.” The United States Magazine and Democratic Review, vol. 15, July 1844, pp. 49–62. Google Books.

Kellem, Betsy Golden. “The 19th-Century ‘Golden Hours’ Convention Brought Young Readers Together to Meet Their Literary Heroes.” Smithsonian Magazine, 9 March 2018.

Langbauer, Laurie. “Young America: Dime Novels and Juvenile Authorship.” Victorian Popular Fictions Journal, vol. 4, no.2, Autumn 2022, pp. 101–20. doi:10.46911/ZCYU5206.

Latham, Robert. Consuming Youth: Vampires, Cyborgs, and the Culture of Consumption. U of Chicago P, 2002. Chicago Scholarship Online, doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226467023.001.0001.

LeBlanc, Edward T. “Binder 13 (Wide Awake Library–Youths’ Library),” Edward T. LeBlanc Bibliography of Story Papers, Dime Novels, and Libraries, Digital Library@Villanova University,

Lee, Amanda. “May Agnes Fleming.” New Brunswick Literary Encyclopedia, 2008. University of New Brunswick Libraries,

Lieffers, Carolyn. “Empires of Play and Publicity in G.P. Putnam’s ‘Boys’ Books by Boys.’” Diplomatic History, vol. 43, no. 1, 2019, pp. 31–56. Academic OUP, doi:10.1093/dh/dhy035.

Lindey, Sara. “Boys Write Back: Self-Education and Periodical Authorship in Late-Nineteenth-Century Story Papers.” American Periodicals, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 72–88. JSTOR, doi:10.1353/amp.2011.0005.

“Literary Notes.” New York Tribune, vol. 45, no. 14115, 08 July 1885, p. 6. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Logan, William. Our Savage Art: Poetry and the Civil Tongue, Columbia UP, 2009. DeGruyter Ebook.

Lutes, Della T. “Erastus F. Beadle, Dime Novel King.” New York History, vol. 22, no. 2, 1 April 1941, pp. 147–57. ProQuest,

Maidment, Brian. Comedy, Caricature, and the Social Order, 1820–50. Manchester UP, 2013.

Marden, Orson Swett. Winning Out: A Book for Young People on Character Building by Habit Forming. Lothrop, 1900, Google Books.

Masteller, Jean Carwile. “Serial Romance: Laura Jean Libbey and Nineteenth-Century Story Papers.” Dime Novel Round Up, vol. 74, no. 6, December 2005, pp. 205–40.

[Mathews, Cornelius]. Review of Poems, by R. W. Emerson. Literary World, vol. 1, no. 9, 3 April 1847, pp. 197–99. Google Books.

Melville, Herman. Pierre, or the Ambiguities. New York: Harper, 1852. Google Books.

“Metta Victoria Fuller (Mrs. Victor); The Authoress.” Cosmopolitan Art Journal, vol.1, no. 3, March 1857, pp. 86–87. JSTOR,

Miller, Perry. The Raven and the Whale; the War of Words and Wits in the Era of Poe and Melville. Harcourt Brace, 1956. Internet Archive, Books to Borrow,

Mitchell, Sally. “Careers for Girls: Writing Trash.” Victorian Periodical Review, vol. 25, no. 3, Fall, 1992, pp. 109–13. JSTOR,

Murphy, Lawrence Parke. “Beadle & Co.” Publishers for Mass Entertainment in Nineteenth Century America, edited by Madeline B. Stern, G. K. Hall, 1980, pp. 35–50.

Osceola. “Our Village.” New York Daily Tribune, 4 June 1849, p. 5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Overby, Lalla. “Forward.” Children’s Periodical of the United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly, Greenwood P, 1984, pp. 155–61.

Papashvily, Helen Waite. All the Happy Endings: a Study of the Domestic Novel in America, the Women Who Wrote it, the Women Who Read it, in the Nineteenth Century. Kennikat Press, 1972.

Patten, Gilbert. “Dime Novel Days: My Start as a Writer.” Saturday Evening Post, 28 February 1931, pp. 6 and 125–30. Academic Search Premier, EBSCO.

Pearson, Edmund Lester. Dime Novels: Or, Following an Old Trail in Popular Literature.

Little, Brown, 1929. Hathi Trust,

Peiss, Kathy. Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York. Temple UP, 1985. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Peterson, Joyce Shaw. “Working Girls and Millionaires: The Melodramatic Romances of Laura Jean Libbey.” American Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, 1983, pp. 19–35.

“Publisher’s Desk.” Munsey’s Magazine, vol. 13, no. 4, July 1895, pp. 437–38. Google Books.

“Publisher’s Notice from the First Edition [1860].” Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter, by Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, John Day, 1929, p. v. Hathi Trust,

Putney, Freeman, Jr. “A Word for Dime Novels.” New York Times, 29 April 1907, p. 8. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Quackenbos, George P. St. Jean’s Evening, or, Crime and Mystery. New York: Winchester, 1846. Google Books.

Reynolds, David S. Beneath the American Renaissance: The Subversive Imagination in the Age of Emerson and Melville. Oxford UP, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Reynolds, Quentin James. The Fiction Factory, or, From Pulp Row to Quality Street: The Story of 100 Years of Publishing at Street & Smith. Random House, 1955.

Roberts, Thomas J. “Gold Bullet Sport, a Dime Novel by Buffalo Bill: or, A Record of an Expedition into the Great American Literary Desert.” Texas Studies in Language and Literature, vol. 33, no. 3, Fall 1991, pp. 403–44. JSTOR,

Rousseau, Victor. “Celebrities at Home: Laura Jean Libbey.” Harper’s Weekly, vol. 53, no. 2715, 23 January 1909, pp. 12–13. Google Books.

Rusk, Ralph. The Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Scribner’s, 1949. Sackett, G. A. “Literary Property.” Arcturus: A Journal of Books and Opinions, vol. 1, no. 2, January 1841, pp. 109–13. Google Books.

Saxton, Alexander. The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America. Verso, 1990.

Scott, Arthur E. “Hard Work the ‘Open Sesame’: The Story of William Wallace Cook.” Writer’s Digest, vol 3, no. 3, February 1923, pp. 5–8.

Shirk, Adam Hull. “The Dime Novel as Literature.” The Soil, vol. 1, no. 1, December 1916, pp. 39–40. Google Books.

Sikes, Wirt. “Talked About People: Metta Victoria Victor.” New York Saturday Journal, vol. 12, no. 589, 25 June 1881, pp. 5+; Nickels and Dimes, Northern Illinois University.

Smith, Carl S. “Fearsome Fiction in the Windy City; Or, Chicago in the Dime Novel.” Chicago History, vol. 7, no. 1, Spring 1978, pp. 2–11. ISSUU,

Smith, Henry Nash. Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth. Vintage, 1957.

Springhall, John. Youth, Empire, and Society: British Youth Movements, 1883–1940. Archon, 1977.

Springhall, John. Youth, Popular Culture and Moral Panics: Penny Gaffs to Ganga-Rap, 1830–1996, St Martin’s P, 1998.

Springhall, John. “Disreputable Adolescent Reading: Low-Life, Women-in-Peril and School-Sport ‘Penny Dreadfuls’ from the 1860s to the 1890s.” Disreputable Pleasure: Less Virtuous Victorians at Play, edited by Mike Higgins and J. A. Mangan, Frank Cass, 2004, pp. 103–23.

Stafford, John. “William A. Jones, Democratic Literary Critic.” Huntington Library Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 3, May 1949, pp. 289–302. JSTOR, doi:10.2307/3816096.

Stafford, John. The Literary Criticism of “Young America.”Berkeley, CA: U of California P, 1952. Hathi Trust,

Stern, Madeleine B. Introduction. Publishers for Mass Entertainment in Nineteenth Century America, edited by Stern, G. K. Hall, 1980, pp. Ix–xix.

“Story of Wide Awake.” Wide Awake, vol. 37, no. 3, Aug 1893, pp. 193–97. Google Books. Not vol. 42 as stated on cover.

Streeby, Shelley. “Dime Novels and the Rise of Mass-Market Genres.” Cambridge History of the American Novel, edited by Leonard Cassuto, Cambridge UP, 2011, pp. 586–99. Cambridge Core, doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521899079.

Streeby, Shelley. “Cheap Sensation: Pamphlet Potboilers and Beadle’s Dime Novels.” Oxford History of the Novel in English, edited by Gerald Kennedy and Leland Person, vol.5 The American Novel to 1870, Oxford UP, 2014, pp. 229–44. 12 vols. Oxford Scholarship Online, doi:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195385359.003.0013.

Sumner, Kate. “Chatterton’s Precious Things: Tokens of Professional Self-Promotion.” Journal of Juvenilia Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, 2003, pp. 15–65. doi:10.29173/jjs95.

Sussex, Lucy. Women Writers and Detectives in Nineteenth-Century Crime Fiction: The Mothers of the Mystery Genre. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Swiencicki, Mark. “Consuming Brotherhood: Men’s Culture, Style and Recreation as Consumer Culture, 1880–1930.” Journal of Social History, vol. 31, no. 4, Summer 1998, pp. 773–808. Oxford Academic, doi:10.1353/jsh/31.4.773.

Taylor, E[tta] M. How: A Practical Business Guide for American Women of All Conditions and Ages, Who Want to Make Money, But Do Not Know How. Minneapolis: E. M. Taylor, 1893. Google Books.

Traube, Elizabeth. “‘The Popular’ in American Culture.” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 25, 1996, pp. 127–51. JSTOR,

Trowbridge, John Townsend. My Own Story: With Recollections of Noted Persons. Houghton, Mifflin, 1903. Google Books.

“Upton Sinclair, Beef Trust Exposer.” Washington Post, 1 July 1906, p. H6. ProQuest Historical Newspapers,

Vanderbilt, Kermit. Charles Eliot Norton: Apostle of Culture in a Democracy. Harvard UP, 1959. De Gruyter, doi:10.4159/harvard.9780674436732.

Vlitos, Paul. “‘Your Successful Man of Letters is your Successful Tradesman’: Fiction and the Marketplace in British Author’s Guides of the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.” Writing Manuals for the Masses: The Rise of the Literary Advice Industry from Quill to Keyboard, edited by Anneleen Masschelein and Dirk de Geest, Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, pp. 107–28. Springer Link, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53614-5_4.

Whiting, Lilian. Louise Chandler Moulton: Poet and Friend. Little, Brown, 1910. Google Books.

Williams, Nathaniel. “Frank Reade, Jr., in Cuba: Dime-Novel Technology, U.S. Imperialism, and the ‘American Jules Verne.’” American Literature, vol. 83, no. 2, June 2011, pp. 279–303. Duke University Press Online, doi:10.1215/00029831-1266063.

Williams, Susan. “Chapter Three: Authors and Literary Authorship.” A History of the Book in America,edited by Scott E. Casper, et al., vol. 3 The Industrial Book, 1840–1880, U of North Carolina P, 2007, pp. 90–116. JSTOR,

Wilson, Christopher P. The Labor of Words: Literary Professionalism in the Progressive Era. U of Georgia P, 1985.

Wingo, Rebecca. “The ‘Forgotten Era’: Race and Gender in Ann Stephens’s Dime Novel Frontier.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, vol. 38, no. 3, 2017, pp. 121–40.

“Writers of the Day.” The Writer: A Monthly Magazine for Literary Workers, vol. 23, no. 8, August 1911, pp. 1221–22. Google Books.

“Writing Sensational Stories.” The Writer: A Monthly Magazine for Literary Workers, vol. 16, no. 8, August 1903, pp. 119–20. Google Books.






Peer-Reviewed Articles